Course of Foot Evolution Analysis Paper
Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References
Humans, along with familiar species such as orangutans, gorillas, lemurs, baboons, and chimpanzees, are primates. Among living primates, modern humans are most closely related to chimpanzees. The two species shared a common ancestor that lived about 67 million years ago. One of the traits that distinguish humans from all other primates, including chimpanzees, is the way we walk. Chimpanzees are primarily quadrupedal, which means that they walk on four limbs. Chimpanzees move with their hands turned under so that their knuckles make contact with the ground, which is why they are also described as knuckle-walkers. Humans, on the other hand, are bipedal, meaning that we walk on two legs.
We walk with our feet close together and directly underneath our hips, enabling us to balance on one leg while the other leg swings forward. Chimpanzees can walk on two legs only for short distances. Because their feet are not directly under their hips, they sway side to side to help maintain balance when walking on two legs.
Because humans are the only primate to walk on two legs, bipedality most likely evolved in the lineage that led to humans. But when during human ancestry did this human trait first evolve? This activity will help answer that question. In Part 1, you will make observations and inferences from a portion of the Laetoli trackway, a trail of footprints that were made in what is now East Africa about 3.6 million years ago! In Part 3, you will compare human feet and chimpanzee feet to the footprints in the Laetoli trackway, to determine whether those footprints were more human-like or chimp-like. Lastly, in Part 3, you will analyze a published scientific figure from a research study that used footprints formed millions of years ago to estimate the heights of early human ancestors.
There are two sets of prints in the trackway; one set is labeled G.1 and the other G.2/3. In each footprint, the outermost lines outline the size of the foot and each line within represents 1 millimeter of additional depth. The more lines there are encircling an area, the deeper that part of the footprint was in the ash.
Question 1. What do you observe about the footprints?
a. Is the big toe pointed in the same direction as the stride?
b. Where was most of the weight placed?
Question 2. What can you infer from your observations? For each of the questions below, list the observations and inferences.
a. How many individuals were walking?
b. What were their relative sizesthat is, how big were they compared with one another?
c. Were they walking together at the same time?
Compare the Laetoli trackway to the two images below of modern human footprints. The images are followed by a link to a very short video of footprints being made in wet sand by a modern human.
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. 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Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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