Effects of Trauma on Development Essay
Effects, Trauma, Development, Essay
Critical thinking paper
Old or young, trauma may have lifelong effect on one’s psychological and physiological development. There are several types of trauma, of which include distressing or disturbing experience and physical injury. This critical thinking paper focuses on an aspect of trauma known as psychological trauma.
Psychological trauma is the unique individual experience of an event or of enduring conditions in which the individual’s ability to integrate his or her emotional experience is overwhelmed (ie his or her ability to stay present, understand what is happening, integrate the feelings, and make sense of the experience), or the individual experiences (subjectively) a threat to life, bodily integrity, or sanity? Pearlman & Saakkvite 1995).
Psychological trauma is associated with certain symptoms. These include nightmares, insomnia, anxiety, panic attacks, flashbacks, acute stress, being, traumatized and depression. Over the years, psychologists have devised methods and strategies to assess and diagnose psychological trauma. Such strategies include interviews and self-administered psychological tests. These are the first step to find solution to psychological trauma.
The question though is, can someone suffer from psychological trauma through detachment in the life course? From the articles in this week’s readings, detachment of children in the early days of development may have a lifetime effects on their psychological and social life. This type of effect can be classified as psychological trauma
The Attachment Theory
The attachment theory or model, as explained by (Fraley, (2018) provides insight into the importance of close emotional bonds that children develop with their caregivers and the implications of those bonds in understanding the personality in these children. The term “Attachment Theory” was originally coined by Bowlby in the 1940s.
The motive of John Bowlby was to provide a model that helps in explaining the intense distress experienced infants who have been separated from their parents. Although there were several alternative theoretical perspectives during this era of John Bowlby’s proposed theory of attachment, his prevailed and gave a better understanding of detachment on children.
John Bowlby observed, children who were separated from their caregivers, especially parents tend to show much emotional pains. These children therefore tend to repress these emotional pains by exhibiting certain characteristics. In the first place, children would try within their power to prevent separation from the parents or to establish proximity to a missing parent.
Also, some children would cry, call for their parents, refuse to eat or play, go close to others and stand in hopes that their parent would return. According to (Fraley,2018), initial psychoanalytic writers referred to these sets of characteristics as immature defense mechanisms that were operating to repress emotional pain.
A continuous attempt to separate a child from the parent stand as a great threat as psychological trauma in children. (Bowlby, 1969) argued that, this is possible because children like other mammalian infants cannot protect themselves, they depend upon the care and protection of older and wiser adults for survival. As a result, taking away this protection has a greater chance of affecting the psychological wellbeing of children.
The Ghost Theory
The Ghost Theory by (Fraiberg, Adelson & Shapiro, 1974) sought to provide a psychoanalytic approach to the problems of impaired infant-mother relationships. The theory ascertained the existence of ghosts in every nursery. These ghosts are visitors from the past who are not remembered in the present time. They could also be uninvited guests at the christening. These ghosts are banished and return to their dwelling place.
To protect infants and their mother relationship, the bond of love and strict analogy of fairy tales protects the child and his or parent from these intruders also known as ghosts according to (Fraiberg et al; 1975). The Ghost Theory shows the importance of the love between children and their parents. This bond between a child and a parent may lead to undesired psychological effects such as psychological trauma.
As observed by, even from the burial places, ghosts still possess the power to cause mischief among families. This goes to even families with a great bond of love between children and their parents. These intruders from the past may still break the magic circle in an unguarded moment.
As a result, there is the need for a constant bond of security between children and their parent. A perfect example was given in the theory about Mary, a five and half months old child and her mother who were struggling with the ghost effect. This is an indication that, detachment of children from their parents has the potential of creating psychological trauma among children.
Effect of Attachment Temperament and Parenting on Human Development
In their article review, (Hong & Park, 2012), discussed the effects that attachment between parents and children have on the development of children. Attachment is defined as a basic human need for a close and intimate relationship between infants and their caregivers.
According to the writers, children who are attached to their parents tend to show more curiosity, self-reliance, and independence. According to (Hong & Park, 2012), securely attached children also tend to become more resilient and competent adults in comparison with children who do not get this kind of attachment from parents at the infancy stage.
These groups of children tend to have a hard time getting along with others and therefore are unable to build a sense of trust and confidence in others. Children who were detached from parents may have difficulty adjusting or are shy or short-tempered and are more likely to experience conflict with their parents.
The writers therefore suggested, to solve or minimize the psychological problems associated with children who do not receive the best attachment with parents, parents need to adjust their caregiving behaviors to better fit the needs of the child.
From the above, it is obvious that a child’s attachment or detachment from parents may create situation that might affect the psychological and social development of the child. Several school of thoughts such as the Attachment Theory, the Ghost Theory and the Impact of Attachment have risen to explain the danger of a child’s detachment from parents.
People experience stress, depression, anxiety leading to psychological trauma when growing up, detachment has the same tendency of leading to creation of psychological trauma. To combat this, parents need to develop caregiving habits that will get their children more attached to them.
(Eds), Noba textbook series: Psychology. Champaign, IL: DEF publishers. DOI:nobaproject.com
Fraley, R. C. (2018). Attachment through the life course. In R. Biswas-Diener & E. Diener (Eds), Noba textbook series: Psychology. Champaign, IL: DEF publishers. DOI:nobaproject.com
Fraiberg S, Adelson E, & Shapiro V, Ghosts in the nursery: A psychoanalytic approach to the impaired infant-mother relationship (1975). Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry. 14(3):387-421
Hong, Y. R., & Park, J. S. (2012). Impact of attachment, temperament and parenting on human development. Korean Journal of Pediatrics, 55(12), 449–454. http://doi.org/10.3345/kjp.2012.55.12.449
Pearlman, Laurie A., & Saakvitne, Karen W. (1995)