Fluorosis and its Effect on the Development of Teeth
Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References
Fluorosis and its Effect on the Development of Teeth
Fluorosis has a devastating effect on the development of teeth. Most people associate fluoride with the practice of intentionally adding fluoride to public drinking water supplies for the prevention of tooth decay (C. Burt, personal communications, November 5, 2020). However, fluoride can also enter public water systems from natural sources, including runoff from the weathering of fluoride-containing rocks and soils and leaching from soil into groundwater.
Fluorosis is a disease resulting from the deposition of fluorides in the hard and soft tissues of the body due to excessive intake of fluoride through intake of water, food products or industrial pollutants over a period. Dental fluorosis also is the appearance of faint white lines or streaks on the teeth that only occurs when younger children consume too much fluoride, from any source, over long periods when teeth are developing under the gums. The effects of fluoride on enamel formation causes dental fluorosis in man are cumulative, rather than requiring a specific threshold dose, depending on the total fluoride intake from all sources and the duration of fluoride exposure. (Aoba and Fejerskov, 2002).
Fluorosis is not a disease and does not affect the health of your teeth. In most mild cases, the effect is inconspicuous that only a dentist would notice it during an examination. The type of fluorosis found in the United States has no effect on tooth function and may make the teeth more resistant to decay ( https://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/f/fluorosis)
Under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires public water systems to notify its customers if the natural occurring fluoride level exceeds 2.0 mg/L or parts per million. People living in areas where naturally occurring fluoride levels in drinking water exceed 2 parts per million should consider an alternative water source or home water treatments to reduce the risk of fluorosis for young children. https://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/f/fluorosis)
Dental Fluorosis: Chemistry and BiologyT Aoba, O Fejerskov, 2002
Fluorosis generally affects the teeth and bones which can lead to major health disorders like dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis and non-skeletal fluorosis. Fluorosis affects men, women and children of all age groups.
The effects on the teeth of dental fluorosis, range from mild to severe. In mild cases, hypo mineralization of the tooth enamel occurs as shown by patches or lacework of opaque, bright white areas that don’t have the same luster as regular enamel. In moderate cases, the teeth develop yellowish or brown stains, giving the teeth a dull or even translucent appearance.
Dental fluorosis is common to children which is characterized by discoloration and disfiguration of their teeth. Skeletal fluorosis, on the other hand, affects the bones and major joints of the body resulting to severe pain, rigidity or stiffness in joints. Severe forms of skeletal fluorosis results in marked disability.
In dental fluorosis, the symptoms range from mild to severe. In mild cases, hypo mineralization of the tooth enamel occurs as shown by patches or lacework of opaque, bright white areas that don’t have the same luster as regular enamel. In moderate cases, the teeth develop yellowish or brown stains, giving the teeth a dull or even translucent appearance. In the rarest and most extreme type of fluorosis, severe staining and a number of pits or small holes are formed in the surface of the teeth. Teeth with severe fluorosis are usually structurally weak and can even be poorly formed.
In skeletal fluorosis, the early symptoms include stiffness and pain in the joints. However, in severe cases, the bone structure may change and ligaments may calcify, resulting to impairment of muscles and pain.
Fluorosis can easily be prevented if diagnosed early and if steps are taken to prevent intake of excess fluoride through provision of safe drinking water, promote nutrition and avoid foods with high fluoride content. Dental and skeletal fluorosis is irreversible and no treatment exists. The only remedy is prevention by keeping fluoride intake within safe limits.
Watch this educational video to know more about Fluorosis:
Ghosh, Aniruddha, et al. “Sources and toxicity of fluoride in the environment.” Research on Chemical
Intermediates 39.7 (2013): 2881-2915.
Research Paper Topic : Fluoride and Its Effect On the Teeth or Fluorosis and its Effect On The Teeeh
2nd set of answers
Fluorosis- It is a condition that comes due to excessive storage of fluorides in the soft and hard body tissues. It is caused by over intake of fluorides by drinking water, industrial pollutants, and food products for a long period. The intake of fluoride affects mainly the bones and teeth.
It is the condition happens to the children during their teeth development at the age of 1 to 8 years. The fluorosis discolours the enamel and disfigures the children’s teeth.
Mild form: the enamel consists of patches; a minute spot looks over the teeth and becomes darker later.
Moderate: the teeth develop a brown or yellow stain that gives the teeth a translucent and dull appearance.
Severe: the condition consists of severe staining in teeth and has pits or small holes in the teeth surface. The teeth that contain severe fluorosis are weak and poorly developed.
Fluoride present on the teeth is tested by hemoglobin and blood, drinking water, urine, and forearm X-ray.
Other tests like chin test, stretch test, and SA/GAG test performed.
Dental carries x-ray cavity is positive.
Dirty teeth are cleaned but the spots on the teeth are not cleaned.
Prognosis: Whitening is a method to clear the stains on teeth. Crowns or bonding are the methods to perform teeth discoloration.
A Crippling disease occurs with deformity and pain leads by excessive fluoride intake. It damages mainly bones, body joints like backbone, knee joints, hip, shoulder, and stiffness and rigidity in joints. Skeletal fluorosis results marked disability.
These are the earlier indication of fluorosis that develops muscular pain and reduce the muscle weakness.
Teeth loss at earlier age, headache, urine comes in reddish yellow colour with less volume, gastro-intestinal problems like diarrhea, constipation, bloody stool, stomach pain, blood vessel and ligament calcification, reduces hemoglobin level, and it might affect fetus.
These are the earlier symptoms which are not specific, but the earlier identification is helpful to detect the disease level.
Fluorosis is prevented by reducing the intake of fluoride content water, and foods. It can be removed by utilizing different water sources, by eliminating the fluoride content in the water, and by increasing the nutritional status of an individual or the populations at risk.
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Here are the Documents for the research paper as we discussed.
Enclosed are the instructions for the research paper as well as my outline for the topic as to what should be included in this paper. Attached is the Professor’s instructions on how
the paper should be formatted. Hope this email is not sounding chaotic as my mind is right now.
1. Discuss what fluorosis is.
2. How fluorosis happens/ occurs
3. Talk about the different types of fluorosis – its a huge spectrum:
– very mild fluorosis
– very severe fluorosis
4. Talk about its prevalence in the United states
5. The effects on the teeth.
6. Use expert opinions
7. Do not use a lot of quotes. Use direct 3 quotes from the writers – only 2 sentences long.
8. Can use International Journal of Dental Hygiene or peer review articles – use articles past 2012 – (6 articles)
9. Analyze data and paraphrase.
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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