Gregor Mendel’s Experiments, Theories, and Findings Essay
Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References
Unit II AssignmentGenetics Worksheet
Gregor Mendels Experiments, Theories, and Findings
1. Mendel observed that pea plants had traits, such as color, that were either one or the other, never something in between. In your own words, discuss the correlation between Mendels factors, what they might be, and why pea plant traits come in one form or anothere.g., gray or dark redrather than blended.
Your response must be at least 75 words in length. (Type your response in the blank area below; it will expand as needed.)
2. Lets imagine that we are studying only one trait, that of green- or yellow-colored seeds. Mendel bred his peas until they either produced seeds of one color or the other. These purebred plants he called the p generation (p for parental generation). He then cross bred green plants with yellow ones and discovered that all the offspring were yellow-colored. Mendel called the offspring of the purebred plants the F1 generation.
In your own words, explain why all the offspring in the F1 generation were yellow instead of half being yellow and half green, or some other mix of the colors. Hint: Remember that Mendel coined the terms dominant and recessive.
Your response must be at least 75 words in length. (Type your response in the blank area below; it will expand as needed.)
Reginald Punnett was a British geneticist who developed the Punnett square to explain how the chromosomes of parents cross and produce offspring. In order to solve genetics problems using a Punnett square, it is necessary to a) understand the associated vocabulary and b) understand some of the rules for solving the problems.
Before you continue with the problems below, review the meaning of the terms allele, dominant, recessive, homozygous, heterozygous, genotype and phenotype.
You should also review the Punnett Square Basics video linked in the unit lesson.
In this first problem (question #3), the key and genotype of the parents will be done for you as an example. For problems #4 and #5, you will fill in those details based on the information in the question.
Remember, when asked for the genotypic ratio, it may be expressed as 25%(GG):50%(Gg):25%(gg), for example. Or, you may write it more succinctly as 1GG:2Gg:1gg. Either way will be correct.
The phenotypic ratio will use descriptive terms, for example, 3(Green):1(clear), 2(Green):2(clear), or whatever it may be depending on the results of your cross.
3. In corn plants, the allele for green kernels (G) is dominant over clear kernels (g). Cross a homozygous dominant plant with a homozygous recessive plant.
Fill in the Punnett square below and give the ratios for each question beneath the Punnett Square.
Key: G = green kernels, g = clear kernels
Genotype of parents: _GG_ x _gg_
What is the genotypic ratio of the offspring in Question 3?
What is the phenotypic ratio of the offspring in Question 3?
4. Yellow seeds are dominant over green seeds in pea plants. Cross a heterozygous (yellow seeded) plant with a green seeded plant.
Genotype of parents: __________ x __________
What is the genotypic ratio of the offspring in Question 4?
What is the phenotypic ratio of the offspring in Question 4?
5. Now cross two of the heterozygous F1 offspring from question #4.
What is the genotypic ratio of the offspring in Question 5?
What is the phenotypic ratio of the offspring in Question 5?
6. Consider the resulting ratio of crossing the two heterozygous pea plants in question #5. We will use this ratio in a short activity exploring probability. Keep in mind that crossing two individuals that are heterozygous for a certain trait is similar to flipping two coins. Each coin has two sides (we might think of each side as an allele) and the chances of flipping heads/heads, heads/tails or tails/tails should be similar to the ratio we see when crossing two heterozygotes.
For this simple activity, you will need two coins (pennies, nickels, dimes, quarters, or a mix of any of those). Alternatively, you may google a coin-flipper simulator that will allow you to flip two coins at once. You will also need a piece of scratch paper and a pen or pencil.
Directions: Flip the two coins simultaneously at least 50 times. For each flip of the pair of coins, you will record the results on a piece of scratch paper. You might set up a table like the one below to record your results. Once you have flipped the coins at least 50 times, enter the number of heads/heads, heads/tails and tails/tails in Table 1 below.
Now determine the ratio for your results. You will do this by dividing the number for each result by the total number of flips, and then multiply by 100.
(Example: If the number of heads/heads is 9 then 9/50 = .18, .18×100 = 18%), Repeat this mathematical procedure for heads/tails and tails/tails)
Compare the resulting ratio from the question #5 cross of two heterozygous parents to the ratio from the coin flipping exercise. Are there similarities? If so, what are they?
What might be done to make the ratio from the coin flipping exercise become more similar to the ratio from question #5? (Hint: Consider that more data equals better accuracy.)
Cancer Risk Factors
6. This question deals with cancer and risk factors. Begin by going to the website http://www.cancer.org/
Click Cancer A-Z in the upper left corner. The page that comes up will provide links to information on breast cancer, colon and rectal cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and skin cancer. Review the information for each these cancers.
Next, write an essay that discusses your own risk factors for each type of cancer and steps you might take to decrease those risk factors. Be sure to address all five types of cancer.
You do not have to disclose any actual personal information if you do not wish to do so. You may create a fictional character and discuss his or her risk factors instead. Be sure to address all five types of cancer.
Your response must be at least 300 words in length. (Type your response below)
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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