interpreting electron micrographs of cells
Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References
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It relates to Book 1 Chapters 2 and 3 and Activity 3.1.
a.Examine the transmission electron micrograph (TEM) images of three different types of cells in Figure 1.
For each of the three cells A, B and C, name the general type of organism (bacterium, animal or plant), and in each case identify two distinctive features of the cell that helped you to distinguish the cell type. (15 marks).
Figure 1 TEM images of different cell types.
High resolution image of cell A
High resolution image of cell B
High resolution image of cell C
b.What is the diameter of the nucleus of the cell in image C? You should base your answer on the high resolution image. (3 marks).
c.Briefly describe how immunolabelling would allow you to identify where a particular type of protein is located in a cell. (Up to 150 words) (8 marks).
d.Compare and contrast the two different centrifugation methods that can be used to separate different subcellular components following homogenisation of cells (i.e. in cell fractionation). Your answer should include an account of the principles underlying the two methods and a comment on their effectiveness. (Up to 150 words) (14 marks).
It requires you to write a plan for an essay based mainly on Book 1, Chapters 2 and 3.
Write a plan for a short essay to compare and contrast prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells in terms of their main structural features and subcellular organisation, and their diversity.
Before starting work on this question, you should read the advice on planning and writing essays given in the Assessment area of the S294 website. There you will find links to online resources on essay writing and how to reference your work.
Your plan should consider the following:
the title (1 mark)
the introduction (4 marks)
the main body of the essay (including brief descriptions of any figures you might wish to use) (20 marks)
the conclusion (2 marks)
references you need to include (a guide to the OU Harvard style of referencing can be found on the OU Library Services, Help and Support page) (3 marks).
Your essay plan should not exceed 200 words, excluding references (this is an advisory word limit). The plan could be in bullet list or note form, but you should indicate clearly what you plan to write in each part of the essay. It is also useful to indicate where you intend to use pictures or diagrams to illustrate your report. Non-linear plans, such as mind maps or flow charts, are also perfectly acceptable, so long as these indicate the intended final structure of the report. You will not be expected to include material from outside the module, but if you do, you must reference these sources appropriately.
Van Noorden, R. (2009). RNA world easier to make, Nature, 13 May [Online]. Available at http://www.nature.com/news/2009/090513/full/news.2009.471.html (Accessed 7 August 2017).
Service, R.F. (2016) RNA world inches closer to explaining origins of life, Science, 12 May [Online]. Available at http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/05/rna-world-inches-closer-explaining-origins-life (Accessed 7 August 2017).
The first news article refers to work that, at the time of the articles publication, had recently been published by John Sutherland and co-workers at Manchester University. The second article refers to the work of Thomas Carell and co-workers at the University of Munich. Both articles are concerned with the origins of life on Earth and in particular with the chemical evolution of ribonucleic acid (RNA). You have already encountered this subject area in S294 Book 1 Chapter 1 (Section 1.1.1).
You should read both articles and relevant material in Book 1 Section 1.1.1 before answering this question. You will need to draw on what you have learned in your studies so far as well as extracting information from the articles.
a.Both articles refer to the RNA world hypothesis, which proposes that early life was based on self-replicating RNA molecules. In terms of storage of hereditary information, how do present-day living organisms differ from the early lifeforms proposed by this hypothesis? (2 marks).
b.How have the experimental studies described in the articles sought to support the RNA world hypothesis? (3 marks).
c.Aside from the potential to self-replicate, what property does RNA have that argues in favour of the RNA world hypothesis? (3 marks).
d.According to Van Noorden (2009), the early attempts of chemists to simulate primordial synthesis of ribonucleotides were unsuccessful. What was this initial approach? (3 marks).
e.Van Noorden (2009) reports that Sutherland and co-workers were eventually successful in synthesising two of the four ribonucleotides of which RNA is composed. Which ribonucleotides did they synthesise? (3 marks).
f.Van Noorden (2009) mentions that other researchers did not accept that the conditions that prevailed in the early Earth would have been consistent with the conditions that Sutherland used in the laboratory. How did Sutherland argue the contrary? (3 marks).
g.How did the work of Carell and co-workers, described in Service (2016), further progress research in this area? Briefly outline how Carell and co-workers achieved this important step. (8 marks).
h.The chemical conditions used by Carell and co-workers for their studies do not match those used by Sutherlands group in their investigations. How might this argue against the RNA world hypothesis? (3 marks)
i.What further major question remains about the origins of early RNA strands? (2 marks).
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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