Multipolar Pyramidal Shape Lab Report
Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References
Biology Name tissue type be specific to cell.type for example epithelial tissue- simple squamous Describe the tissue according to the text including at least four defining characteristics of this specific type of tissue Identify the locations where this specific type of tissue is found Describe the function (s) of this specific tissue type Include 3 references on a works cute page and utilize in text citation within the report where these are required
34. Human Genetics Basic Mendelian Genetics & Biological Features Lab Report
Human Genetics Lab
Basic Mendelian genetics is inheritance of biological features that are controlled by a single locus (the specific location of a gene); therefore, in basic Mendelian genetics, the phenotype (physical trait) of an individual is controlled by a single genotype (gene that it carries). Most traits are not simple Mendelian (they are affected by multiple loci and the environment as well). Mendelian traits in humans include sickle-cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease, Huntingtons disease, and cystic fibrosis. Today, you will be investigating your own phenotypes and possible genotypes and examining the relationship between genotype and phenotype for simple single-locus Mendelian genetics.
Why are we doing this lab?
To introduce you to basic Mendelian genetics.
To examine the relationship between your own phenotype and genotype.
Use chi square statistics to analyse genetics results.
Part 1: Use the following descriptions to fill out the table on the next page about yourself.
A. The ability to roll the tongue into a u-shape is dominant over the lack of this ability.
B. Having a widows peak (your hairline comes to a point in the center of your forehead) is the dominant phenotype. No widows peak (a straight hairline) is recessive.
C. A free, detached earlobe is the dominant phenotype. Attached earlobes are recessive.
D. Hitchhikers thumb (being able to bend your thumb joint backwards) is the recessive phenotype. No hitchhikers thumb (thumb can only bend back until it is straight) is dominant.
E. Bent little finger (the top joint of your little finger is bent towards your ring finger) is the dominant phenotype. A straight little finger is recessive.
F. Having any hair on your mid-digit (the middle section of your finger; between the section with your nail and the section where you wear a ring) is the dominant phenotype. No mid-digital hair is recessive.
G. Having dimples (of any size on one or both sides) is the dominant phenotype. No dimples is recessive.
H. Second toe longer than the big toe is dominant. Second toe shorter than the big toe is recessive.
I. The presence of freckles is dominant over the absence of freckles.
J. Short index finger means that your index finger is shorter than your ring finger. This may be a sex-influenced trait. In males, short index finger is dominant; in females, long index finger is dominant.
Table 1. Circle your genotype and calculate the class percentages of each phenotype.
Phenotypes Genotypes Class Percentages
1. Tongue rolling, not rolling A- aa
2. Widows peak, straight hairline B- bb
3. Earlobes free, attached C- cc
4. Straight thumb, hitchhikers thumb D- dd
5. Bent little finger, straight finger E- ee
6. Mid-digital hair, lacking F- ff
7. Dimples present, absent G- gg
8. Big toe shorter, longer H- hh
9. Freckles present, absent I- ii
10. Roman nose, straight nose J- jj
11. Curly, wavy, straight hair LL LL LL
12. Dark eyes, light eyes M- mm
13. Normal vision, red-green colorblind XN- XnXn XnY
1. Which dominant trait is the most common in our class?
2. Which dominant trait is the rarest in our class?
Part 2: In this exercise, you will pair up with another person in class and create two children.
Refer to Table 1 for your genotypes and your partners genotypes.
o If your genotype for a trait in Table 1 is A-, then record your genotype is heterozygous in Table 2. In other words, if you have the dominant phenotype, then assume you have the heterozygous genotype.
Record the alleles in the appropriate columns in Table 2.
Pass down an allele from each parent onto each child. For heterozygous genotypes, toss a coin to determine which allele gets passed on to the child.
Record the childs genotype and phenotype. Repeat for Child #2.
Table 2. Simulation on determining the genotypes and phenotypes of your children.
Trait Your Genotype Partners Genotype Child #1 Genotype Child #1 Phenotype Child #2 Genotype Child #2 Phenotype
/ Allele 1 (Heads) Allele 2 (Tails) Allele 1 (Heads) Allele 2 (Tails) / / / /
3. Why did you toss the coin to determine which allele was passed down to the child? (Hint: why didnt you just choose the allele or use a die?)
4. Based on phenotypes, does Child 1 resemble you or your partner more?
5. Based on phenotypes, does Child 2 resemble you or your partner more?
6. Are there any phenotypes that your child has but neither you nor your partner have? (For example, both parents have freckles but the child does not). If yes, which traits?
7. Explain how a child could have a phenotype that is absent from both parents?
8. Why is it more likely for non-dimpled parents to have all non-dimpled children than dimpled parents having all dimpled children?
Part 3: Chi square analysis in genetics crosses
You are conducting a study to determine if a recessive trait in fruit flies, double antenna, is passed from one generation to the next according to basic Mendelian inheritance patterns, from which you expect a 3:1 ratio of dominant to recessive phenotypes in the F2 generation. The data is shown in Table 3. Use a chi-square test to determine if the observed distribution of dominant and recessive phenotypes is significantly different than the expected ratio.
Table 3. Number of fruit flies with wild-type or double antenna phenotypes in the F2 generation.
Phenotype Wild-type Double Antenna
Number observed 94 46
9. What is the calculated chi square for the observed data? Refer to Lab 6 if necessary.
10. What is the degrees of freedom?
11. Is there a significant difference (p<0.05) between the expected and observed data? Use the critical chi square table below.
12. What do your chi square results indicate about the inheritance of antenna in fruit flies?
Table 4. Critical values of the chi square distribution with df degrees of freedom.
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
GET THIS PROJECT NOW BY CLICKING ON THIS LINK TO PLACE THE ORDER
Do You Have Any Other Essay/Assignment/Class Project/Homework Related to this? Click Here Now [CLICK ME] and Have It Done by Our PhD Qualified Writers!!
Tired of getting an average grade in all your school assignments, projects, essays, and homework? Try us today for all your academic schoolwork needs. We are among the most trusted and recognized professional writing services in the market.
We provide unique, original and plagiarism-free high quality academic, homework, assignments and essay submissions for all our clients. At our company, we capitalize on producing A+ Grades for all our clients and also ensure that you have smooth academic progress in all your school term and semesters.
High-quality academic submissions, A 100% plagiarism-free submission, Meet even the most urgent deadlines, Provide our services to you at the most competitive rates in the market, Give you free revisions until you meet your desired grades and Provide you with 24/7 customer support service via calls or live chats.